In the evening of September 18, 1931, the Japanese invasion army--Kantogun (Kwantung Army) voluntarily blew up a section of the South Manchuria Railway which was near Liutiao Lake on the suburb of Shenyang, but they accused Chinese troops of destroying the railway. On this pretext, they attacked Beidaying and Shenyang City where the Chinese troops were stationed. Soon afterwards, they occupied more than 20 cities and vast surrounding areas within only several days. That was the “September 18 Incident” that shocked China and the whole world at that time.
In the evening of September 18, 1931, the Japanese troops mounted a large-scale offensive against Shenyang on the pretext of the “Liutiao Lake Incident”. At that time, the Kuomintang Government was concentrating troops on the anti-communist and anti-people civil war, adopted a policy of quislism towards the Japanese invaders, order troops stationed in Northeast China “not to resist absolutely” and withdraw to the inside of the Shanhai Pass. The Japanese invaders took advantage of this weak point, occupied Shenyang on September 9 and then divided troops to respectively occupy Jilin and Heilongjiang. By January 1932, the three provinces in Northeast China all fell into the enemy hands.
In March 1932, under the aegis of the Japanese Imperialism, the puppet regime—the puppet “State of Manchukuo” was founded in Changchun. From then on, The Japanese Imperialists had changed Northeast China into Japan's exclusive colony, fully strengthening political oppressions, economic plunders and cultural enslavements. Our 30 million compatriots in Northeast China were plunged into an abyss of misery and suffering.
The “September 18 Incident” aroused people's angry tide of resistance against Japan all over China. People all over the country successively demanded resistances against Japan and opposed the Kuomintang Government's non-resistance policy. The people in Northeast China were roused to resist and launched anti-Japanese guerilla warfare. Various armed anti-Japanese forces including the Northeast Volunteers appeared.
In February 1936, all anti-Japanese troops were uniformly reorganized as the Anti-Japanese Amalgamated Army of the Northeast. After the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937, the Amalgamated Army united vast majority of masses to further lunch protracted comprehensive armed anti-Japanese struggles, effectively coordinating the nationwide War of Resistance against Japan led by the Communist Party of China, and finally gained the victory over Japan.
The launch of the “September 18 Incident” was a long-premeditated important invasion step taken by the Japanese Imperialists for annexing China and dominating Asia and the Pacific Region. Early in the summer of 1927, the Japanese Cabinet held the “Oriental Meeting” and mapped out the “Political Platform towards China” in Tokyo, proclaiming that the Northeast China “has great interests in terms of (Japan's) national defence and people's existence”. In July of the same year, the cabinet prime minister Tanaka Giichi submitted the“Tanaka Memorial”to the Mikado, publicly proclaimed: “In order to conquer China, we must first conquer Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, and in order to conquer the world, we must first conquer China”, thereby decided the presumptuous strategy of establishing invasion bases in “Manchuria and Mongolia”.
In 1931, the Japanese Army Headquarters secretly formulated the principles, steps and measures for invading Northeast China. After careful preparation for the invasion war, the Japanese Imperialists blatantly launched the “September 18 Incident”, it was a prelude to all-around armed invasions to China, then Asia and the Pacific Region.
September 18th Incident
July 7th Incident (Lugou Bridge Incident)
Battle of Shanghai
Battle of Pingxingguan; victory at Pingxingguan
Battle of Tai’erzhuang; victory at Tai’erzhuang
Battle of Wuhan
Eighth Route Army
New Fourth Army
Northeast United Resistance Army
Southern China People’s Counter-Japanese Guerrilla Force
Chinese Expeditionary Force
enemy-occupied area; occupied area
“Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere”
“Three Alls” policy (kill all, burn all, loot all)
“Unit 731” (Unit 731 of Manchuria)